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伊朗前总统拉夫桑贾尼逝世,享年82岁

2005年,阿亚图拉阿里·阿克巴尔·哈什米·拉夫桑贾尼在德黑兰。

大华新闻网纽约时报讯 伊朗前总统、这个伊斯兰共和国开国元勋阿亚图拉阿里·阿克巴尔·哈什米·拉夫桑贾尼(Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani)周日在德黑兰去世,享年82岁。作为伊朗影响力最持久、最富有的领导人之一,他领导该国度过了神权政治的诸多险滩。

伊朗官方电视台宣布了他离世的消息。

他的职业生涯随着革命热情的不同时期和强大保守派对手的挑战而起伏不定。在这个过程中,他被描绘成伊朗精英派中一个在权力斗争上不择手段,而且往往冷酷无情的角色。他因为与1979年推翻伊朗国王的革命领袖阿亚图拉鲁霍拉·霍梅尼(Ruhollah Khomeini)关系密切,而受到保护。

周日,在德黑兰举行的追悼会上,拉夫桑贾尼的女儿法埃泽·哈什米·拉夫桑贾尼(左)与亲戚和哀悼者围坐在他的棺材周围。

拉夫桑贾尼被认为是一名实用主义者和中间派,在经济上倾向自由主义,在政治上倾向威权主义。批评人士指控他腐败,积聚大量财富,对待异见者经常采取严酷手段。

阿根廷指控拉夫桑贾尼及其他伊朗高层领导人是1994年布宜诺斯艾利斯一个犹太人社区中心爆炸案的幕后主使,那起事件导致85人丧生。1997年,一座德国法院得出结论,称伊朗最高政治领导层在五年前下令杀害了五名流亡柏林的伊朗库尔德异见者。拉夫桑贾尼于1989年至1997年间担任伊朗总统。

但是,许多西方分析人士认为,相比伊朗统治集团的其他权势人物,他寻求与美国达成少一些对抗的关系。比如,外界认为是拉夫桑贾尼提议将“美国灭亡”的口号从德黑兰周五的祈祷文中去除。

2009年,伊朗最高领袖阿亚图拉阿里·哈梅内伊(左)、当时的伊朗总统马哈茂德·艾哈迈迪-内贾德(中)和拉夫桑贾尼(右起第二位)在德黑兰参加阿亚图拉鲁霍拉·霍梅尼的遗孀哈迪耶·萨卡非(Khadijeh Saqafi)的追悼会。

在1980年至1988年进行的两伊战争的最后阶段,拉夫桑贾尼被任命为伊朗部队代理总司令。外界普遍认为,是他劝说德黑兰领导层接受了联合国一项结束战斗的决议。

在职业生涯的大部分时间里,他一直在议会和有影响力的神职人员专家会议里担任职位。

2009年,拉夫桑贾尼在德黑兰大学引领周五祈祷。

在马哈茂德·艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)于2005年至2013年担任伊朗总统期间,拉夫桑贾尼的影响力急剧下降。作为一名民粹主义保守派,艾哈迈迪-内贾德在伊朗穷人中有很强的号召力,其中不少人憎恨财富,但恰恰是财富让拉夫桑贾尼深受他那些有钱同胞的喜爱。

2013年,拉夫桑贾尼被取消了总统竞选资格,他将自己的政治影响力转移到老朋友、温和派的哈桑·鲁哈尼(Hassan Rouhani)身上,后者赢得了大选,继而将拉夫桑贾尼的许多支持者召入自己的内阁,并在2015年与美国达成了核协议。



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