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黄河沿岸传承千年的羊皮筏 只用公羊制作[图集]

(大华新闻网羊皮筏子俗称排子,为黄河沿岸的民间保留下来的一种古老的摆渡工具,也是一种古老的水上运输工具,用羊皮做成。过去,在交通极不便利的黄河上游地区,羊皮筏子一直是重要的运输工具。(图源:新华社)

皮筏子古称“革船”,是一种原始而古老的水上交通工具,大约有1500多年的历史了。用羊皮筏子送人渡河、运载货物这种交通方式,流行于青海、甘肃、宁夏境内的黄河沿岸,以兰州一带为最多。(图源:新华社)

羊皮筏子由十几个气鼓鼓的山羊皮“浑脱” 组成。筏子有大有小,最大的羊皮筏子由600多只羊皮袋扎成,小皮筏系用10多个羊皮袋扎成,适于短途运输,主要用于由郊区往市区送运瓜果蔬菜,渡送两岸行人等。(图源:新华社)

因为黄河的水流湍急,浅滩很多,帆有局限性,一些水域只可以下划或上划。于是,人们开始在黄河上用羊皮筏作为运输工具,在上游对羊皮筏进行充气,在下游卸货,皮袋放气,羊皮反复使用,大大节约了成本。(图源:新华社)

筏子客将羊皮扎紧。(图源:新华社)

而制作羊皮筏子,需要很高的宰剥技巧。宰剥时,从羊颈部开口,慢慢地将整张皮囫囵个儿褪下来,不能划破一点毛皮。(图源:VCG)

将羊皮脱毛后,要吹气使皮胎膨胀。(图源:VCG)

再灌入少量清油、食盐和水,然后把皮胎的头尾和四肢扎紧。(图源:VCG)

经过晾晒的皮胎颜色黄褐透明,看上去像个鼓鼓的圆筒。(图源:VCG)

而羊皮筏子只能用公羊制作,因为母羊的乳房会漏气,也是羊皮筏的禁忌。(图源:新华社)

羊皮筏子需要人用嘴吹气,使其胀满,故当地人见到有人夸海口,说大话,往往以“请你到黄河边上去”来讥讽,意思是让其去吹羊皮囊或牛皮囊,据考证,俗话“吹牛皮”就来源于此。(图源:新华社)

北京时间5月29日,在甘肃白银市景泰县中泉镇龙湾村,筏子客罗崇孝在一次黄河漂流结束后背起羊皮筏子。(图源:新华社)

筏子客罗崇孝在黄河漂流前对羊皮筏子进行清洗。(图源:新华社)

由于现代交通工具的发达和交通设施的便捷,它的货物运输和载人济渡的功能基本丧失,主要功能转向娱乐。无法预测,也许若干年后会被其他丰富的娱乐项目取而代之。(图源:新华社)



TAG: 民俗传承 羊皮筏

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